Stainless Steel and the Dielectric Oxides in a WFC
We should not stop experimenting with different types of metals in the water fuel cell. Just because 316 is corrosion resistant, does not automatically mean it has the best electrical properties for a water fuel cell.
It can only be the Silicon (and carbon to a lesser extent) in stainless steel that forms a true water capacitor, and only after the plates are conditioned for a long time with high voltage to bring up all the silicon oxide to the surface of the metal. The water does NOT form the dielectric (insulator in the capacitor). The water is a CONDUCTOR and always will be a conductor.
Type 301, 347 and type 410 stainless steels have more silicon and carbon than either 304 or 316!
The reason water cannot be a dielectric is because it conducts more and more current as you increase voltage potential across the water fuel cell electrodes. There is no way for the water to store energy, because the voltage is dropped immediately through the resistance (conductivity) of the water its self. Water immediately conducts current and discharges, therefore it cannot ever form a useful capacitor when used a dielectric.
Per Wikipedia: "A dielectric is an electrical insulator that may be polarized by the action of an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material, as in a conductor, but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization:"
This part may sound confusing: The capacitor is not formed between the positive plate and negative plate. It is actually formed between the water, and the negative plate. The water is conductive, therefore it cannot possibly be used as an efficient dielectric. The water conducts current from the positive plate very well, thereby it is merely an extension of the positive electrode. If you don't believe me, just stick your hand in the water when charging a WFC with 175 volts! The fact that you get shocked badly means the regular tap water is able to carry current fairly easily.
The real capacitor dielectric in a WFC is actually the OXIDE of silicon between the negative metal plate and the water, with the water merely being an extension of the positive (Anode). You are forming a capacitor where the Anode is the water, the Cathode is the stainless steel plate on the negative side. The dielectric is the invisible oxide that forms underneath the white calcium which forms on the negative plate. A true dielectric can only be a few nano-meters thick, and it is pretty much invisible to the eye. The oxide will appear as a purple and blue coating on the metal, and will make the metal look like it has been overheated.
If you put the anode and cathode very close together, the chains of water molecules that are spaced between the plates appear to become more stressed, because water does indeed have the main dielectric property of being polarized on each side. So even though water alone cannot be used as a dielectric in a capacitor, it can be ripped apart by taking advantage of the water molecule polarization.
The closer the plates are together, and the higher the voltage is across the plates, the more stress is imparted on the water molecule. The oxide on the plates is what prevents the water from carrying current, thus higher and higher voltages can be stored between the plates. Without current flow, the water can begin acting as a real dielectric.
When the positive plate and negative plate have sufficient differences in potential, there is a very strong electro-static attraction that pulls apart the water molecule. The key here is that you have to have a way of preventing the circuit from supplying amps, because amperage will destroy the dielectric substance on the plates faster than it can be rebuilt, and you will not get the "electron stripping" that Meyer invented.
If you can supply pure radiant energy through a pulse charger, such as the one listed on my site, then you do not supply the water with any appreciable current. Since no current is supplied to the water, the plates are able to form a very strong oxide coating that raises the impedance of the cell over time, and eventually such a high voltage is reached between the plates that the water molecule has no choice but to supply electrons to match the charges on each of the plates. Instead of having dielectric failure of the real dielectric (the oxide coating) you get dielectric failure of the water, which is being used as both an extension of the anode, and a very weak dielectric. Since all dielectrics have a breakdown voltage, and since water is a dielectric, you are simply trying to reach the dielectric breakdown voltage of the water, before you reach the breakdown voltage of the oxide film on the plates. If you use pure voltage, without current, the oxide that forms on the plates becomes stronger and stronger, while the water becomes weaker and weaker.
However, this does not explain everything! On a molecular level, there is a unique exchange that occurs between stainless steel oxides and water. This exchange does not happen with aluminum plates. By plaxing aluminum plates in a mixture of distilled water and 2 teaspoons of baking soda, the water in between the plates does not produce hydrogen at all, instead it becomes slightly ionized, and actually emits a faint orange-white glow! The aluminum begins emitting photos which appear as tiny blue sparks all over the metal, and there is almost no current flow at all between the plates! In order to test this, you have to use pure aluminum electrodes, put into a container with distilled water and baking soda (you have to use distilled water only).
With all water capacitors, something magical happens if you use a specific metal. Metal selection is important. Aluminum tends to get really severe pitting at high voltages if you do not use distilled water. The oxides break down and there is a short circuit. Aluminum is quickly destroyed at the moment of any significant electrolysis. The aluminum does not produce any useful electrolysis of water, even though it forms an extremely high poewr capacitor when used in distilled water with baking soda. The fact that aluminum doesn't produce hydrogen in distilled water mixed with baking soda is pretty significant. It means that you can't simply build a water capacitor and get hydrogen as Meyer claimed. You have to have a small amount of dielectric failure which allows a small current to flow through the water. Apparently stainless steel has a magical dielectric layer on it, because it produces heaps of hydrogen in comparison to aluminum, with the same amount of input power. The magic of the oxide layer on metal cannot be overstated. You have to have the CORRECT metal with the correct oxide, otherwise you get nothing! That is why we need to keep experimenting and not just take the word of a few people who have claimed replications.
Stainless steel is amazing because you can produce hydrogen constantly, while also repairing and building new oxide simultaneously, meaning as you use the HHO cell, the power input goes down the entire time. This is a very unusual thing. If you look at the chart, it is apparent that the gas output continues to increase over time, even as current levels off or slowly decreases. Further increases in conditioning creates more hydrogen gas for free!
This is based on just using 316L stainless steel in tap water, pulsed with high voltage pulses over a period of days.
Stanley Meyer recommended in his patent to use 304 Stainless. Meyer said "more often than not, patents are stolen from the inventor." quote. With that said, there is not a single reason to believe what Meyer said in his patents. You should consider the subject of metal selection an "open book" and experiment with all types of metals. The only serious replications I've seen online focus on using 304 or 316 stainless steel. This is detrimental because we are limiting our scientific understanding of metals.
Yes 316 is corrosion proof. But we aren't trying to perform electrolysis and prevent corrosion. We are trying to perform magic, and that involves an exchange of energy at the atomic level. The invisible oxide coating on stainless steel could very well be responsible for 90% of the gas production. It only makes sense to experiment with all types of stainless steel, as well as other metals, perhaps even Titanium (Titanium oxide forms a one way diode, and can be used to make a capacitor).
Recently it was proposed that in a cold fusion cell, the Palladium and Heavy Water react in a special way, causing fusion inside the metal without releasing harmful radiation. It becomes apparent that all of the different chemical, electrical, and atomic reactions of electrically charged metal in water are not completely known by mainstream science. Metal selection is obviously a factor that plays in a role in the way water "reacts."
Scientists at Penn State University make new discovery regarding the structure of metal atoms and their affect on electrolysis:
"Our previous research suggested that electronic properties govern everything about these aluminum clusters, but this new study shows that it is the arrangement of atoms within the clusters that allows them to split water," said A. Welford Castleman Jr., Eberly Family Distinguished Chair in Science and Evan Pugh Professor in the Penn State Departments of Chemistry and Physics. "Generally, this knowledge might allow us to design new nanoscale catalysts by changing the arrangements of atoms in a cluster. The results could open up a new area of research, not only related to splitting water, but also to breaking the bonds of other molecules, as well."
Meyer has told eye witnesses that the ONLY metal that will work for electrodes in a WFC is 410 stainless! This could explain why most people have had very slow and poor results conditioning their plates. I am using 316L stainless, and it takes millennia for the oxides to form! It is too chemically stable. Some people (Ravi) has reported that it takes months to condition 316. What if there was an easier way?
Meyer was obsessed with covering up his patents and information because he was jealous of it being stolen. Why on Earth would he tell people what kind of metal to use? The key to the whole process was forming a real water capacitor with a magic oxide on the plates. If he told us the correct metal to use, he would have blown his whole operation.
Now, look the composition of 410 stainless. What do we see? More silicon! 1% silicon is in 410 stainless, with only 0.75% in 304 and 316. Meyer was quoted as saying "the only metal that will work for electrodes in the WFC are 410 stainless." Whether that is true or not, it very well could be. The main objective is to make the metal into a "valve metal" by applying a small amount of current to the metal, which makes the metal produce an oxide that acts a diode, blocking current flow in one direction. In my experience, oxides act as one way valves. On aluminum, the aluminum oxide (ruby) allows power to flow in one direction, but not the other, producing a very effective diode effect. The effect on stainless steel is much more subtle, but is still apparent. On regular steel, there is probably no diode effect at all, unless it is a corrosion resistant steel with Silicon in it.
410 Stainless steel has 40% more non conductive material (Carbon and SIlicon) than 304 & 316 stainless steel and 48% more than in 304L & 316L stainless. 410 series stainless is therefore a much better material for creating a true water capacitor.
The oxides that build up over time on the 410 should be sufficiently more resistive (non conductive). The electrical resistance of the pure metal its self does not matter. Even though 410 is rated to have less resistance, the presence of silicon and carbon should produce an oxide coating that is significantly more resistive than with 304 or 316 stainless.
Type 347 stainless contains 1.00% tantalum, with tantalum being an electrical insulator similar to silicon. Type 347 could potentially be the most resistive of all metals. Type 17-7 stainless has 1% aluminum in it! Aluminum forms a true dielectric oxide (ruby) similar to Tantalum. It could be worth experimenting with these forms of stainless to see if they are better suited to replicate Stanley Meyer's high voltage electrolysis.
Per Wikipedia: "Tantalum electrolytic capacitors exploit the tendency of tantalum to form a protective oxide surface layer, using tantalum powder, pressed into a pellet shape, as one "plate" of the capacitor, the oxide as the dielectric, and an electrolytic solution (water) or conductive solid as the other "plate".
Stainless Steel Composition Charts
From: United Performance Metal
Note: The information here is proposed as a theory. If you know for a fact that something is wrong or inaccurate, please contact me so I can correct it. The main purpose here is to enligthen people, not spread misinformation.