Water Fuel Cell Theory

Making a Real Water Capacitor with the Stanley Meyer (WFC)

Using plates or tubes in tap water:

 

Contrary to Meyer’s explanation, water is NOT the dielectric. This is one stumbling block that confuses many people. For all practical purposes, there is no such thing as useful "dielectric water." Only ice can be a true dielctric. Nikola Tesla discovered that ice was an extremely good insulator, and yet ice has often been measured to have a higher dielectric constant than liquid water.

 

"Because ice and water have strong molecular dipole moments, the dielectric constant for both water and ice is approximately a value of 80 at "low" frequencies (up to approximately 400 Hz for the temperature range shown here). The water dielectric constant stays nearly constant for greater frequencies due to the characteristic orientation relaxation frequency being above 1000 Mhz. In contrast, the ice dielectric constant starts falling off rapidly at frequencies above approximately 400 Hz because of a much lower characteristic orientation relaxation frequency.."

 

"...the dielectric constant and conductivity of liquid water are nearly independent of frequency for values less than 1,000 MHz. " (Frequencies less than 1,000 Mhz will not have an effect on the water molecule.)

 

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6239601.html -- Weinstein, Leonard M. (Newport News, VA)


Liquid water will have a small capacitance, but mainly it is just seen as a resistance! A true dielectric has to be a pure insulator.

True capacitors have very thin dielectrics. You cannot have a true capacitor with a 1/16” gap between the two plates, because the capacitance of any given dielectric decreases exponentially with distance, therefore the large gap between the plates in a WFC cannot possibly provide any useful capacitance. Try taking your two stainless steel plates and stuffing a thin sheet of dielectric (non conductive) dry newspaper between them. Now try measuring the capacitance between the two plates. It won’t be much, if anything. That is because thick dielectrics do not perform well as a dielectric!

In a real water capacitor, and in many commercial electrolytic aluminum capacitors, water is used as a conductor, and forms an extension of the cathode, while the real dielectric is the microscopically thin oxide layer on the stainless steel (or aluminum) anode. The water conducts electricity, while the ultra thin oxide layer on the positive plate is an insulator. When you have a proper oxide coating, an extremely powerful capacitance exists only between the negatively charged water bath, and the positive plate. In contrast, the capacitance between the actual plates or tubes is incredibly tiny, because the plates or tubes are simply spaced too far apart. The real capacitor is formed at the oxide layer.

This oxide layer is what makes a given water capacitor perform like a real capacitor, behaving in a way that is beneficial and even mysterious. For example, a functioning water capacitor stores static electricity momentarily after it is disconnected, because there is very little internal resistance. I’ve made real water capacitors using aluminum plates in baking soda. Immediately after being disconnected from power, they can be discharged violently with a tremendous spark. This only happens if you have a non-conductive oxide formed on the positive plate/s. Before the oxide is formed, the capacitor will not take a charge and hold a charge.

Aluminum oxide doesn’t have the same properties as the oxide that forms on stainless steel, so stainless steel is better suited to making hydrogen, though aluminum does make a very good capacitor in distilled water mixed with baking soda.

 

"The dielectric material of electrolytic capacitors is produced from the anode metal itself in what is known as the forming or anodizing process. During this process, current flows from the anode metal – which must be a valve metal such as aluminum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, or silicon – through a conductive bath of a special forming electrolyte to the bath cathode. The flow of current causes an insulating metal oxide to grow out of and into the surface of the anode. The thickness, structure and composition of this insulating layer determine its dielectric strength. The applied potential between the anode metal and the bath cathode must be above the oxide breakdown voltage before significant current will flow."

(The type of metal used in a water capacitor is obviously important, in one of his lectures, Stanley Meyer said that the invention of stainless steel is what actually made his process possible. If we take this statement at face value, than stainless steel must have decent electrical properties.)

 

http://electrochem.cwru.edu/encycl/art-c04-electr-cap.htm

 

A proper oxide coating is 100% non conductive, and extremely thin, perhaps even invisible to the naked eye.

In a water capacitor, the metal oxide forms the dielectric, not the water! The water carries current, and forms the anode. This is how water capacitors have been built all along, and that hasn’t changed.